The thyroid is an endocrine gland located at the front of the neck that produces hormones responsible for maintaining organism homeostasis.
Indications for thyroidectomy include:
- Multinodular goiter especially if there is compression of nearby structures mainly trachea
- Thyroid cancer
- Ineffective pharmacological treatment of nodular goiter
- Complicated hyperthyroidism
Based on clinical picture and the results of additional tests, the surgeon decides on extent of the surgery (removal of all or part of thyroid gland). The procedure is performed under general anesthesia. The surgeon makes a collar incision in the lower part of the neck and reaches the thyroid gland. Then, the surgeon dissects part or the entire thyroid gland, supplying the vessels and identifying parathyroid glands and recurrent laryngeal nerves.
If thyroidectomy is performed as a result of thyroid cancer, the surgeon may also examine and remove lymph nodes around the thyroid. After the removal of the thyroid gland, the operating field is controlled and the drains are placed. The thyroid in gland is sent for histopathological examination.