Gallstone disease is the most common disorder affecting the biliary system in which the stones are formed in gallbladder or the biliary tract. Patients usually report dyspeptic symptoms and recurrent biliary colic (known as gallbladder attack) which is characterize by sudden pain in the right upper part of abdomen, fever, nausea and vomiting. Symptomatic cholecystolithiasis is the most common indication for cholecystectomy. Complications of gallstones may lead to cholecystitis, pancreatitis, obstructive jaundice and cholangitis.
Cholecystectomy is the surgical removal of the gallbladder along with deposits. The surgery is most commonly performed using laparoscopy. Once the pneumoperitoneum is formed, the camera and surgical tools are placed through small incisions within the anterior wall of abdominal cavity. The cystic duct and artery are identified, dissected, ligated by clips and cut. The gallbladder is then removed through one of the ports, usually in the epigastrium. If necessary, a drain is inserted that is removed before leaving the hospital.
The gallbladder is sent for histopathological examination.