Hemorrhoids, also known as piles, are pathologically altered vascular plexus of the anal canal. They become a disease when swollen, inflamed or thrombotic. Hemorrhoids are the most common reason for proctological consultations.
Hemorrhoids can develop inside the rectum (internal hemorrhoids) or under the skin around the anus (external hemorrhoids).
Factors contributing to the hemorrhoids development include:
- sedentary lifestyle, lack of physical activity;
- dietary mistakes (low-fiber diet, insufficient fluid intake);
- irregular bowel habits (constipation or diarrhea);
- pregnancy and perinatal period;
- older age;
- increased intraabdominal pressure e.g. prolonged straining, ascites, presence of intraabdominal mass.
Signs and symptoms of hemorrhoids may include itching and irritation in the anal region, pain and discomfort, swelling around the anus and bleeding.
During the proctological consultation, the surgeon will analyze your medical history. Your doctor will also perform finger rectal examination. It is also necessary to evaluate the anal canal with anoscope.
Among different laser surgeries available, laser hemorrhoidoplasty procedure (LHP) is a relatively new, minimally invasive approach. The procedure involves laser coagulation of branches of the rectal artery to stop the blood flow to the hemorrhoidal plexus. The pathologically altered tissues are also ablated. The surgery results in withdrawal and healing of the piles. The surgery may be performed under the spinal or local anesthesia.
The minimally invasive procedures allow the patient for the quick return to daily activities and reduce the postoperative pain.